Chemistry

Optical detection methods in sensor technology


Mode interferometer

In contrast to the Mach-Zehnder interferometer and Young interferometer, the integrated optical mode interferometer manages with one measuring arm. Here the transverse electrical (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes are referenced against each other and the polarization state of the emerging light is measured.

Principle

  • Different effective refractive index neff for TE and TM modes in the waveguide.
  • The external refractive index influences TE and TM modes differently.
  • Change in polarization state when the analyte reacts.

Signal

The phase shift is derived from the intensity measured at the four detectors Φ calculated.

tanΦ=I.4I.3I.4+I.3I.2I.1I.2+I.1

Φ varies with the addition of analyte.


Optical communications engineering

optical communications engineering, Branch of physics that deals with the use of light waves in the Data processing and the transmission of light messages. In optical communications technology, a combination of electronic circuits and optical transmission systems is usually used (integrated optics), which replace the relatively low bus speeds of today's electronics with three-dimensional transmission paths and frequencies in the GHz range. The development goal is one that also calculates with optical circuits optical computer. (digital optics)

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In addition to extensive knowledge in theory and practice, which we provide you with, your training is very broad. So you can later work in a wide variety of areas. With your knowledge of the most varied of sensor principles, your area of ​​application can be in the development and construction of sensors, but also in the specific use of these systems. Or you specialize: for example in medical or environmental technology. And if you are much more interested in measuring and analyzing, then the wide field of chemical analysis, trace analysis up to atomic resolution offers other exciting fields of application.

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Soon nothing will work without them: small sensors that are at the heart of tomorrow's technology. Because they equip devices, cars, machines and much more with intelligence. They can be used to measure variables such as temperature and pressure, acoustic and optical signals, but also to convert them into electrical signals in order to trigger specific reactions.

All about studying

Good reasons to study with us

What do our students particularly appreciate about us? - Compared to other faculties, the study groups in this degree program are small and clear. Our students appreciate the familiar atmosphere at our faculty, the lessons in small groups, the personal atmosphere and the intensive support that this makes possible. The pronounced practical relevance is also perceived as extremely positive.
Another big plus point - especially when it comes to great internships or future employers: Even during their studies, our students benefit from the excellent contacts our faculty has to global market leaders based here, regional companies, but also abroad.

What you should bring with you

In addition to your admission and qualification for this degree program, we would be pleased if you also bring the following with you:

  • Enthusiasm for technology in theory & practice
  • Interest in chemistry, math & physics
  • Interested in electronics & mechanics
  • Curiosity & the joy of experimentation

What we can offer you

  • Faculty & amp; university with the best reputation
  • Well-equipped laboratories
  • Practical teaching, plus internships and practical semesters
  • Close contacts to global companies
  • International university partnerships
  • On request: semester abroad, for example in Asia
  • Small teaching groups & a "family" atmosphere
  • Individual support from our staff
  • Regensburg = lively & economically strong city

Course content

What else you can learn important from us

But we also make you fit for the future in other ways and prepare you comprehensively for your future professional life. This includes the following subjects and soft skills:

  • Technical English
  • Quality management courses
  • Presentation techniques
  • Rhetoric courses
  • possible: other foreign languages

Specialization in the following five semesters

In the following semesters 3 to 7, courses on topics such as construction, computer science, analytical and physical chemistry, sensor principles and microsensors are on the program. You consolidate your skills and knowledge in our state-of-the-art laboratories and our clean room laboratory, which is state-of-the-art and is unparalleled at a university across Bavaria.

The "basic course" in the first two semesters

The course is practice-oriented and comprises seven semesters. - In the first two semesters you will attend the same courses as our microsystem technology students. The focus is on the basics of mathematics, physics and chemistry, because these subjects are the main pillars of your studies. This means that you are well prepared when you enter the world of sensor technology and analytics from the third semester onwards.

Internships and practical semesters

Internship abroad: Gaining experience worldwide

Are you curious about other countries and cultures and would you like to gain experience abroad as part of your studies? - Our partnerships with international universities, especially in Asia, are the perfect prerequisites for this. We are also happy to assist you with the preparations and advise you which courses make sense in advance (languages, intercultural competence, etc.) and how an internship or semester abroad can also be financially managed.

The practice officer and the internship office support all aspects of your internship:

Plus point practical relevance: with laboratory work, internship, etc.

For practical learning, practice in our state-of-the-art laboratories and a first-class clean room laboratory. Your studies also include internships that you complete during the course. In addition, the entire fifth semester is intended for a preparatory internship with a practical seminar.
How do you find an exciting internship? - With our excellent contacts to smaller companies and large global corporations here in the region, but also abroad, we are happy to help you.


As part of a newly established cooperation between Reutlingen University and the University of Tübingen, Marc Brecht was appointed Professor of Experimental Physics. Brecht will begin teaching and research in the 2016/17 winter semester. After the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Science and Art approved the funding of the cooperative doctoral program "Intelligent Process and Material Development in Biomateriomics" between Reutlingen University and the University of Tübingen, the cooperation between the two universities continues to take shape As a bridge professorship, the cooperation between the chemistry and physics departments of the University of Tübingen and the teaching and research center "Process Analysis & amp Technology" of the Faculty of Applied Chemistry will be intensified. where doctoral candidates from both universities conduct research.

Fig .: Marc Brecht (Image: private)

“The aim of the bridge professorship is, among other things, to strengthen the science location Tübingen-Reutlingen in the field of applied natural sciences, especially spectroscopy and microscopy. We are pleased to have found an expert in this field, ”said Günter Lorenz, Dean of the Applied Chemistry Faculty at Reutlingen University.

The University of Applied Sciences was able to win Marc Brecht as a new professor, who has been a member of the IAMP (Institute for Applied Mathematics and Physics) as head of "Teaching for Physics" at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Winterthur (Switzerland). In addition, Marc Brecht has been a private lecturer at the Chemistry Department at the University of Tübingen since 2010, where he heads a laboratory with a focus on optical microscopy and sensor technology.

“Professor Brecht's main research areas form a bridge between the field of physical chemistry at the University of Tübingen and process analysis at Reutlingen University. In addition to synergy effects in research, it will also strengthen teaching at both universities, ”says Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Tübingen. In this role, Mr. Brecht will start his work at both universities in the winter semester 2016/2017.


In combination with fiber optics, 2D materials with outstanding optical properties enable completely new applications in the field of sensor technology, non-linear optics and quantum electronics. However, until now it has been very time-consuming to bring the two components together. Because the wafer-thin layers usually had to be produced separately and then transferred to the waveguide by hand. Jena researchers, together with Australian colleagues, have now succeeded in growing 2D materials directly on optical fibers for the first time. This significantly simplifies the production of such hybrid nanomaterials.

"We have integrated transition metal dichalcogenides - a 2D material with excellent optical and photonic properties that interacts very strongly with light, for example - in specially developed glass fibers," says Falk Eilenberger from the University of Jena. "Unlike before, however, we did not apply the half-nanometer-thick layer manually, but let it grow directly on the fiber," says the specialist in the field of nanophotonics. “This means that the 2D material can be applied with less effort and on a much larger area. In addition, we were able to prove that the light in the glass fiber interacts with its coating. ”The step towards practical application is not very far for the intelligent nanomaterial that has been created in this way.

A specially developed growth process that overcomes previous hurdles is responsible for the success. "By analyzing and checking all growth parameters, we have precisely identified the levers that we need to turn in order to allow the 2D material to grow on the fibers that serve as the substrate," says Andrey Turchanin, explaining the starting point for the method is based on chemical vapor deposition. Among other things, a temperature of around 700 degrees Celsius is required. This is why the fibers are particularly suitable as carriers: “The pure quartz glass that serves as the substrate can withstand the high temperatures extremely well. It is heat-resistant up to 2,000 degrees Celsius, ”says Markus A. Schmidt from the Leibniz Institute for Photonic Technologies, who developed the fiber. “Their small diameter and flexibility make them flexible fiber optic cables,” emphasizes Schmidt.

The combination of 2D material and fiberglass has resulted in an intelligent material platform that brings together the best of two worlds. "Due to the functionalization of the glass fiber with the 2D material, the interaction length between light and material is now significantly increased," says Antony George, who developed the manufacturing method for the new 2D materials together with Turchanin. The team sees possible applications for the system in two main areas: On the one hand, the combination is ideal for sensor technology. For example, gas concentrations could be measured by guiding green light over the fiber into a room and then picking up information from the environment at the points functionalized by the 2D material. Since the fluorescence properties of the 2D material change due to external influences, the light changes color and returns to a measuring device as red light. Since the fibers are very small, sensors on this basis may also be recommended for applications in biotechnology or medicine.

On the other hand, such a system could also be used as a non-linear light converter. With such an optical fiber, due to its non-linear properties, a laser can be converted to white light and then used in spectroscopic investigation methods in biology or chemistry. The Jena researchers see further areas of application in the field of quantum electronics and quantum communication. The invention of the interdisciplinary team was recently registered for a patent.


Looking for innovations in optical sensor technology

As of now, scientists and developers can apply again for the Kaiser Friedrich Research Prize. The prize for innovative, trend-setting developments in optical technologies is endowed with 15,000 euros.

Optical sensors are very important in our modern world. Process control, quality monitoring and occupational safety cannot be imagined without them, for example. The extremely sensitive measurement methods also play an important role in securing critical infrastructures such as airports. Optical sensors are also essential instruments in surgery, diagnostics and therapy for medicine.

The advantages are apparent:

Compared to conventional analysis and diagnostic methods, optical sensors work quickly and without contact, do not require any sample preparation and do not influence the process to be examined. They are therefore ideally suited for in-situ diagnostics under real-time conditions. In particular, new types of fiber and nanotechnologies offer previously unknown possibilities of miniaturization as well as an increase in detection accuracy and selectivity.

Corresponding future-oriented sensor concepts are the goal of the current tender. In addition to scientific excellence, submitted work should reveal clear approaches to industrial implementation. In particular, opportunities for miniaturization and practical applications of optical sensors in the fields of precision measurement technology, the environment, medicine, biotechnology, security technology and energy research are to be honored. The application deadline is March 11, 2011.

The Kaiser Friedrich Research Prize is awarded every two years by Dr.-Ing. Jochen Stöbich, Managing Director of Stöbich Brandschutz GmbH in Goslar, awarded to individuals or teams from research and development. On May 10, 2011, the decision of the 7-member jury made up of well-known experts from business and science will be announced at the Photonics Innovation Forum in Goslar.


The excellent infrastructure of the modern photonics laboratories combined with first-class instrumentation and the pronounced interdisciplinary orientation of the research topics form the basis for cooperation with partners from the research and application fields of environmental and life sciences.

Current

Competition start 2021: Berlin Innovation Prize.

The search for the best innovations from the states of Berlin and Brandenburg has begun.


Sensors

Sensors, Me & # 223f & # 252hlerthat convert a (physical) measurement & # 223gr & # 246 & # 223e into an evaluable (e.g. electrical) signal. Sensors are used in measurement and control technology, the monitoring and control of processes, environmental analysis and many other areas that involve the detection of a wide variety of conditions, some of which are complex systems. The physical quantity of interest is usually determined indirectly by changing another quantity. A Temperature sensor On a semiconductor basis, for example, uses the strong temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the semiconductor to record the temperature. Important sensors on a physical basis are pressure sensors, light sensitive sensors (Detectors), Radiation sensors, Humidity sensors, acoustic sensors (Microphones) and motion detector. The sensor works together with one & # 220transfer (Transducer) as a measuring system that forwards the change in a physical variable of the sensor element under the influence of the variable to be measured to the observer (or the measuring station).

In the field of Environmental analysis Sensors are often used that can directly detect pollutants, gases, smoke or the like. In addition to semiconductor sensors, chemical or biosensors are often used here. Just that Biosensors are researched very intensively, as these measuring devices have great potential for use in the field of medical diagnostics and environmental analysis.

Sensors often represent an important part of a complex control loop and must therefore be reliable, sensitive and robust. the Sensors is used together with the microelectronics (Nanotechnology, microprocessors) regarded as one of the key technologies of the modern age, not least because of their close interdependence. Complex sensor systems are often combined with the necessary evaluation electronics and the corresponding transducer on one chip (Wafer) integrated. Sensors that can be queried by radio are of great importance for future applications (remote sensing, Remote sensing), which, as active or passive measuring and monitoring systems, can wirelessly pass on their information to the measuring station.

In the Vehicle technology sensors play an increasingly important role. Here, the operating status of the vehicle (engine temperature, exhaust gas quality, & # 214l pressure and viscosity & # 228t, tire pressure, etc.) is & # 252 monitored dynamically, readjusted if necessary, or communicated to the driver via warning signs & # 252.

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Staff Volume I and II

Silvia Barnert
Dr. Matthias Delbrück
Dr. Reinald ice cream
Natalie Fischer
Walter Greulich (editor)
Carsten Heinisch
Sonja Nagel
Dr. Gunnar Radons
MS (Optics) Lynn Schilling-Benz
Dr. Joachim Schüller

Christine Weber
Ulrich Kilian

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Katja Bammel, Berlin [KB2] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. W. Bauhofer, Hamburg (B) (20, 22)
Sabine Baumann, Heidelberg [SB] (A) (26)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Bethge, Frankfurt (B) (18)
Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
Angela Burchard, Geneva [AB] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Heidelberg [FE] (A) (27 Essay Biophysics)
Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33)
Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
Dr. Andreas Faulstich, Oberkochen [AF4] (A) (Essay Adaptive Optics)
Prof. Dr. Rudolf Feile, Darmstadt (B) (20, 22)
Stephan Fichtner, Dossenheim [SF] (A) (31)
Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15)
Natalie Fischer, Dossenheim [NF] (A) (32)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Fredenhagen, Hamburg [KF2] (A) (Essay Algebraic Quantum Field Theory)
Thomas Fuhrmann, Heidelberg [TF1] (A) (14)
Christian Fulda, Heidelberg [CF] (A) (07)
Frank Gabler, Frankfurt [FG1] (A) (22 essay data processing systems for future high-energy and heavy-ion experiments)
Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
Michael Gerding, Kühlungsborn [MG2] (A) (13)
Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
Uwe Grigoleit, Göttingen [UG] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Michael Grodzicki, Salzburg [MG1] (A, B) (01, 16 essay density functional theory)
Prof. Dr. Hellmut Haberland, Freiburg [HH4] (A) (Essay Cluster Physics)
Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Chemnitz [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
Jens Hoerner, Hanover [JH] (A) (20)
Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Hamburg [UK] (A) (19)
Thomas Kluge, Mainz [TK] (A) (20)
Achim Knoll, Strasbourg [AK1] (A) (20)
Andreas Kohlmann, Heidelberg [AK2] (A) (29)
Dr. Barbara Kopff, Heidelberg [BK2] (A) (26)
Dr. Bernd Krause, Karlsruhe [BK1] (A) (19)
Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Dresden [AM1] (A) (21)
Holger Mathiszik, Bensheim [HM3] (A) (29)
Mathias Mertens, Mainz [MM1] (A) (15)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Warwick, UK [RM1] (A) (23)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09 Essay Acoustics)
Guenter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Maritha Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Dr. Christopher Monroe, Boulder, USA [CM] (A) (Essay Atom and Ion Traps)
Dr. Andreas Müller, Kiel [AM2] (A) (33 Essay Everyday Physics)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Regensburg [NN] (A) (05)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06 Essay Analytical Mechanics)
Prof. Dr. Harry Paul, Berlin [HP] (A) (13)
Cand. Phys. Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Platt, Heidelberg [UP] (A) (Essay Atmosphere)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14 Essay General Theory of Relativity)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Prof. Dr. Günter Radons, Stuttgart [GR2] (A) (11)
Oliver Rattunde, Freiburg [OR2] (A) (16 essay cluster physics)
Dr. Karl-Henning Rehren, Göttingen [KHR] (A) (Essay Algebraic Quantum Field Theory)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
Prof. Dr. Hermann Rietschel, Karlsruhe [HR1] (A, B) (23)
Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Mainz [OR1] (A, B) (04, 15 essay distributions)
Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Heidelberg [HJR] (A) (29)
Dr. Margit Sarstedt, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK [MS2] (A) (25)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Arthur Scharmann, Giessen (B) (06, 20)
Dr. Arne Schirrmacher, Munich [AS5] (A) (02)
Christina Schmitt, Freiburg [CS] (A) (16)
Cand. Phys. Jörg Schuler, Karlsruhe [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Joachim Schüller, Mainz [JS2] (A) (10 essay analytical mechanics)
Prof. Dr. Heinz-Georg Schuster, Kiel [HGS] (A, B) (11 essay Chaos)
Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (A, B) (07, 20)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
William J. Thompson, Chapel Hill, USA [WYD] (A) (Essay Computers in Physics)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
Dipl.-Geophys. Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29 essay atmosphere)
Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
Markus Wenke, Heidelberg [MW3] (A) (15)
Prof. Dr. David Wineland, Boulder, USA [DW] (A) (Essay Atom and Ion Traps)
Dr. Harald Wirth, Saint Genis-Pouilly, F [HW1] (A) (20) Steffen Wolf, Freiburg [SW] (A) (16)
Dr. Michael Zillgitt, Frankfurt [MZ] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Helmut Zimmermann, Jena [HZ] (A) (32)
Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)

Dr. Ulrich Kilian (responsible)
Christine Weber

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Markus Aspelmeyer, Munich [MA1] (A) (20)
Dr. Katja Bammel, Cagliari, I [KB2] (A) (13)
Doz. Hans-Georg Bartel, Berlin [HGB] (A) (02)
Steffen Bauer, Karlsruhe [SB2] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29)
Dr. Werner Biberacher, Garching [WB] (B) (20)
Prof. Tamás S. Biró, Budapest [TB2] (A) (15)
Prof. Dr. Helmut Bokemeyer, Darmstadt [HB2] (A, B) (18)
Dr. Ulf Borgeest, Hamburg [UB2] (A) (Essay Quasars)
Dr. Thomas Bührke, Leimen [TB] (A) (32)
Jochen Büttner, Berlin [JB] (A) (02)
Dr. Matthias Delbrück, Dossenheim [MD] (A) (12, 24, 29)
Karl Eberl, Stuttgart [KE] (A) (Essay Molecular Beam Epitaxy)
Dr. Dietrich Einzel, Garching [DE] (A) (20)
Dr. Wolfgang Eisenberg, Leipzig [WE] (A) (15)
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Vienna [FE] (A) (27)
Dr. Roger Erb, Kassel [RE1] (A) (33 essay Optical phenomena in the atmosphere)
Dr. Christian Eurich, Bremen [CE] (A) (Essay Neural Networks)
Dr. Angelika Fallert-Müller, Groß-Zimmer [AFM] (A) (16, 26)
Stephan Fichtner, Heidelberg [SF] (A) (31)
Dr. Thomas Filk, Freiburg [TF3] (A) (10, 15 essay percolation theory)
Natalie Fischer, Walldorf [NF] (A) (32)
Dr. Harald Fuchs, Münster [HF] (A) (Essay Scanning Probe Microscopy)
Dr. Thomas Fuhrmann, Mannheim [TF1] (A) (14)
Christian Fulda, Hanover [CF] (A) (07)
Dr. Harald Genz, Darmstadt [HG1] (A) (18)
Michael Gerding, Kühlungsborn [MG2] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Gerd Graßhoff, Bern [GG] (A) (02)
Andrea Greiner, Heidelberg [AG1] (A) (06)
Uwe Grigoleit, Weinheim [UG] (A) (13)
Prof. Dr. Michael Grodzicki, Salzburg [MG1] (B) (01, 16)
Gunther Hadwich, Munich [GH] (A) (20)
Dr. Andreas Heilmann, Halle [AH1] (A) (20, 21)
Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Christoph Heinze, Hamburg [CH3] (A) (29)
Dr. Marc Hemberger, Heidelberg [MH2] (A) (19)
Florian Herold, Munich [FH] (A) (20)
Dr. Hermann Hinsch, Heidelberg [HH2] (A) (22)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
Dr. Georg Hoffmann, Gif-sur-Yvette, FR [GH1] (A) (29)
Dr. Gert Jacobi, Hamburg [GJ] (B) (09)
Renate Jerecic, Heidelberg [RJ] (A) (28)
Dr. Catherine Journet, Stuttgart [CJ] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Prof. Dr. Josef Kallrath, Ludwigshafen, [JK] (A) (04 Essay Numerical Methods in Physics)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Claus Kiefer, Freiburg [CK] (A) (14, 15 Essay Quantum Gravity)
Richard Kilian, Wiesbaden [RK3] (22)
Dr. Ulrich Kilian, Heidelberg [UK] (A) (19)
Dr. Uwe Klemradt, Munich [UK1] (A) (20, essay phase transitions and critical phenomena)
Dr. Achim Knoll, Karlsruhe [AK1] (A) (20)
Dr. Alexei Kojevnikov, College Park, USA [AK3] (A) (02)
Dr. Berndt Koslowski, Ulm [BK] (A) (Essay Surface and Interface Physics)
Dr. Bernd Krause, Munich [BK1] (A) (19)
Dr. Jens Kreisel, Grenoble [JK2] (A) (20)
Dr. Gero Kube, Mainz [GK] (A) (18)
Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Volker Lauff, Magdeburg [VL] (A) (04)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Axel Lorke, Munich [AL] (A) (20)
Dr. Andreas Markwitz, Lower Hutt, NZ [AM1] (A) (21)
Holger Mathiszik, Celle [HM3] (A) (29)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Prof. Dr. Karl von Meyenn, Munich [KVM] (A) (02)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Augsburg [RM1] (A) (23)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09)
Günter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Marita Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Dr. Andreas Müller, Kiel [AM2] (A) (33)
Dr. Nikolaus Nestle, Leipzig [NN] (A, B) (05, 20 essays molecular beam epitaxy, surface and interface physics and scanning probe microscopy)
Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
Dr. Ulrich Parlitz, Göttingen [UP1] (A) (11)
Christof Pflumm, Karlsruhe [CP] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Oliver Probst, Monterrey, Mexico [OP] (A) (30)
Dr. Roland Andreas Puntigam, Munich [RAP] (A) (14)
Dr. Andrea Quintel, Stuttgart [AQ] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Dr. Gunnar Radons, Mannheim [GR1] (A) (01, 02, 32)
Dr. Max Rauner, Weinheim [MR3] (A) (15 Essay Quantum Informatics)
Robert Raussendorf, Munich [RR1] (A) (19)
Ingrid Reiser, Manhattan, USA [IR] (A) (16)
Dr. Uwe Renner, Leipzig [UR] (A) (10)
Dr. Ursula Resch-Esser, Berlin [URE] (A) (21)
Dr. Peter Oliver Roll, Ingelheim [OR1] (A, B) (15 essay quantum mechanics and its interpretations)
Prof. Dr. Siegmar Roth, Stuttgart [SR] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Hans-Jörg Rutsch, Walldorf [HJR] (A) (29)
Dr. Margit Sarstedt, Leuven, B [MS2] (A) (25)
Rolf Sauermost, Waldkirch [RS1] (A) (02)
Matthias Schemmel, Berlin [MS4] (A) (02)
Michael Schmid, Stuttgart [MS5] (A) (Essay nanotubes)
Dr. Martin Schön, Constance [MS] (A) (14)
Jörg Schuler, Taunusstein [JS1] (A) (06, 08)
Dr. Joachim Schüller, Dossenheim [JS2] (A) (10)
Richard Schwalbach, Mainz [RS2] (A) (17)
Prof. Dr. Paul Steinhardt, Princeton, USA [PS] (A) (Essay quasicrystals and quasi-unit cells)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Stierstadt, Munich [KS] (B)
Dr. Siegmund Stintzing, Munich [SS1] (A) (22)
Cornelius Suchy, Brussels [CS2] (A) (20)
Dr. Volker Theileis, Munich [VT] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Gerald 't Hooft, Utrecht, NL [GT2] (A) (essay renormalization)
Dr. Annette Vogt, Berlin [AV] (A) (02)
Dr. Thomas Volkmann, Cologne [TV] (A) (20)
Rolf vom Stein, Cologne [RVS] (A) (29)
Patrick Voss-de Haan, Mainz [PVDH] (A) (17)
Dr. Thomas Wagner, Heidelberg [TW2] (A) (29)
Dr. Hildegard Wasmuth-Fries, Ludwigshafen [HWF] (A) (26)
Manfred Weber, Frankfurt [MW1] (A) (28)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Burghard Weiss, Lübeck [BW2] (A) (02)
Prof. Dr. Klaus Winter, Berlin [KW] (A) (essay neutrino physics)
Dr. Achim Wixforth, Munich [AW1] (A) (20)
Dr. Steffen Wolf, Berkeley, USA [SW] (A) (16)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jochen Wosnitza, Karlsruhe [JW] (A) (23 essay organic superconductors)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Jörg Zegenhagen, Stuttgart [JZ3] (A) (21 essay surface reconstructions)
Dr. Kai Zuber, Dortmund [KZ] (A) (19)
Dr. Werner Zwerger, Munich [WZ] (A) (20)

Dr. Ulrich Kilian (responsible)
Christine Weber

Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin

The author's abbreviation is in square brackets, the number in round brackets is the subject area number, a list of subject areas can be found in the foreword.

Prof. Dr. Klaus Andres, Garching [KA] (A) (10)
Markus Aspelmeyer, Munich [MA1] (A) (20)
Dr. Katja Bammel, Cagliari, I [KB2] (A) (13)
Doz. Hans-Georg Bartel, Berlin [HGB] (A) (02)
Steffen Bauer, Karlsruhe [SB2] (A) (20, 22)
Dr. Günther Beikert, Viernheim [GB1] (A) (04, 10, 25)
Prof. Dr. Hans Berckhemer, Frankfurt [HB1] (A, B) (29 Essay Seismology)
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Prof. Dr. Martin Dressel, Stuttgart (A) (essay spin density waves)
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Natalie Fischer, Walldorf [NF] (A) (32)
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Christian Fulda, Hanover [CF] (A) (07)
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Carsten Heinisch, Kaiserslautern [CH] (A) (03)
Dr. Marc Hemberger, Heidelberg [MH2] (A) (19)
Dr. Sascha Hilgenfeldt, Cambridge, USA (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
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Priv.-Doz. Dr. Dieter Hoffmann, Berlin [DH2] (A, B) (02)
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Prof. Dr. Josef Kallrath, Ludwigshafen [JK] (A) (04)
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Ralph Kühnle, Heidelberg [RK1] (A) (05)
Volker Lauff, Magdeburg [VL] (A) (04)
Dr. Anton Lerf, Garching [AL1] (A) (23)
Dr. Detlef Lohse, Twente, NL (A) (essay sonoluminescence)
Priv.-Doz. Dr. Axel Lorke, Munich [AL] (A) (20)
Prof. Dr. Jan Louis, Halle (A) (essay string theory)
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Holger Mathiszik, Celle [HM3] (A) (29)
Dr. Dirk Metzger, Mannheim [DM] (A) (07)
Dr. Rudi Michalak, Dresden [RM1] (A) (23 essay low temperature physics)
Günter Milde, Dresden [GM1] (A) (12)
Helmut Milde, Dresden [HM1] (A) (09)
Marita Milde, Dresden [MM2] (A) (12)
Prof. Dr. Andreas Müller, Trier [AM2] (A) (33)
Prof. Dr. Karl Otto Münnich, Heidelberg (A) (Essay Environmental Physics)
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Dr. Thomas Otto, Geneva [TO] (A) (06)
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Prof. Dr. Stefan Theisen, Munich (A) (essay string theory)
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Articles on the topic

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Optical sensors

This textbook covers the basics, important individual elements and systems of optical sensors and measurement technology. The first part deals with the propagation of Gaussian rays, the photo effect, electromagnetic waves and aberrations. In the second part, the essential components of optical sensors are presented, such as: B. LED, laser, photodiode and optical fiber. Finally, in the third part, complex systems are described in their function and with application examples (including light barriers, fiber sensors, flow measurement technology, particle measurement technology, telescopes). Errata: You will find two image corrections under OnlinePLUS.

Martin Löffler-Mang is a professor at the HTW des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken in the mechatronics / sensor technology course. His main areas of work include: in the field of optical sensors, particle and laser measurement technology.

"The author also derives more complex measuring devices from the fundamentals - a successful combination." DESIGN & ELECTRONICS - KNOW-HOW FOR DEVELOPERS, 3-2012


Optical detection methods in sensor technology - chemistry and physics

Photonics is one of the most exciting and dynamic areas of applied research. Building on many years of technological experience, Fraunhofer HHI has established a leading position worldwide in the field of integrated optoelectronic components. In addition to classic optical data transmission, these are increasingly being used in other promising fields such as sensor technology and analytics, quantum communication and quantum information processing. The dynamism of this technology field opens up the scope for exciting scientific projects with a clear application perspective.

  • Development, design and modeling of integrated photonic components for quantum technologies, communication and sensors
  • Development and support of the manufacturing and assembly steps from the chips to usable modules
  • Supervision of the metrological characterization of the components
  • Support and further development of our workplaces in measurement technology
  • Participation in national and international research projects
  • Implementation of development projects together with industrial partners

What to bring with you

  • Above-average academic degree (master's / diploma) in physics, electrical engineering or related fields of study
  • Comprehensive knowledge of quantum mechanics as well as semiconductor physics, optics or photonics
  • Experience in optical and optoelectronic measurement technology
  • Programming skills, ideally in LabVIEW or Python
  • Interest in the development of technology, construction and measurement technology

What to expect

In our motivated group we deal with the challenges of the hybrid integration of photonic functionalities on the basis of active semiconductor components, passive waveguide networks and non-linear optical components. In this context, we are looking for your support to further expand our activities in the field of integrated optics for quantum technologies.

The wide range of applications for the chips we have developed extends from classic optical data transmission to new types of applications in quantum communication and quantum computing. From simulation to design, manufacture and measurement characterization, we can map all development stages for innovative integrated optical components. In this way, we offer you the opportunity to work on a wide range of exciting and application-oriented subject areas and to acquire a wide range of knowledge in the process. Our excellently equipped laboratories offer you all possibilities for this. In addition to working in national and international research projects, you are guaranteed excellent contacts in the relevant industrial and scientific environment.

Fraunhofer is the largest organization for application-oriented research in Europe. Our research fields are based on people's needs: health, safety, communication, mobility, energy and the environment. We are creative, we design technology, we design products, we improve processes, we open up new avenues.

Please apply exclusively via our online portal and post all important application documents (diploma or master’s certificate, job references, curriculum vitae, etc.) in our recruiting portal.


Our research topics are located in the scientific fields of the life and environmental sciences and use laser-based optical spectroscopy as a "tool". Stationary and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy are used as experimental techniques ("tools"). Organic dyes and f-elements (lanthanoids and also selected actinides) are used as optical probes.

Basic photophysical investigations that aim at the detailed description of intra- and intermolecular deactivation processes, as well as applied questions from a wide variety of scientific disciplines, are key issues. Among other things, organic dyes are used as optical probes in biomimetic and biological systems. By applying fundamental photophysical effects, such as the radiationless energy transfer according to Förster (& quotFRET & quot), processes of biomolecules at the molecular level (e.g. protein folding, DNA hybridization or antigen-antibody interactions) are investigated.

Furthermore, lanthanide ions (and partly also actinides) are used as luminescence probes for speciation, e.g. to investigate the mobility of heavy metals in the environment, or as emission centers in nanoparticles with possible uses for the development of new types of sensor technology in biology or clinical diagnostics. The application of lanthanoid-based frequency conversion in connection with nanoparticles is a particularly exciting area of ​​research.


Video: Anycubic chiron dual z axis sensor calibration! (January 2022).