The introduction of foreign genes into eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Depending on the cell line used, different transfection methods can be used:
- Calcium phosphate method. The DNA is mixed with calcium chloride and phosphate-containing buffer solution. This creates DNA calcium phosphate crystals that are deposited on the cell surface and are absorbed into the cell via endocytosis.
- Electroporation. A short electrical impulse with a high field strength briefly increases the permeability of the cell membrane. This enables macromolecules to return DNA to enter the cell.
- DEAE dextran technique. Similar to the calcium phosphate method, the DNA forms with 2- (diethylamino) ethyl (DEAE) -dextran complexes, which are deposited on the cell surface and enter the cell through endocytosis.
- Liposome-Mediated Transfection. DNA or RNA can be packaged in phospholipid vesicles (liposomes), which are likely to subsequently fuse with the cell membrane and release the nucleic acid into the cell.
- Direct microinjection. In this procedure, the DNA is injected directly into the nucleus through a glass microcapillary.