Compact course reaction technology

Real systems

Real reactors operated continuously differ from ideal systems by mixing effects. In terms of their flow states, real systems therefore generally lie between the two extreme cases of complete mixing in the ideal stirred tank and the non-existent axial back-mixing in the ideal flow tube.

Various models have been developed to characterize these real states. The cascade model and the axial dispersion model belong to the single-parameter models. The moment method statistically describes the residence time behavior in a reactor.

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